Oil barrels. Oil products are obtained from crude oil, which is oil from the ground before it has been refined. It contains a varied mixture of hydrocarbons, and is heated to separate it into parts called fractions. Fractions obtained from crude oil include bitumen, fuel oil, lubricating oils, diesel, jet fuel, petrol, and petroleum gases. The fractions are used as aircraft, motor vehicle and heating fuels, as industrial fuels and lubricants, and to make products such as plastics in the chemical industry. These barrels carry the logos of ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, and BP, three of the world's largest oil companies.
© PAUL RAPSON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Oil well, 19th century
Oil well. Crude oil erupting from a wellhead in a 19th-century oil field. The wellhead is the structure used to contain and pump oil as it reaches the surface from deep underground, often, as here, under great pressure. This oil well is in the Balakhani oilfield in Baku, Azerbaijan, then under Russian rule. Oil had been produced in this region since at least the 16th century. The first modern oil wells here were drilled in the 1840s. The oil industry here expanded over the following decades, with large amounts of oil still being obtained here today. Artwork from the first volume (first period of 1888) of the French popular science weekly 'La Science Illustree'.
© SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Digital illustration of greenhouse representing gas emissions by weight showing Nitrous Oxide (blue), Artificial Gases (orange) Methane (green), Carbon Dioxide (Yellow)
Digital illustration of greenhouse representing gas emissions by weight showing Nitrous Oxide (blue), Artificial Gases (orange) Methane (green), Carbon Dioxide (Yellow).
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