Higgs Boson particle, artwork
Higgs Boson particle. Computer artwork of a yellow sphere in a circular chamber with light emanating from behind it. This could represent the Higgs Boson particle being discovered in a particle accelerator. The Higgs Boson is an elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the only particle of the Standard Model which is yet to be detected (as of 2009). Particle accelerators are enormous circular tunnels built underground. They are used to accelerate particles towards each other at massive speeds. When the particles collide they break up into smaller particles, revealing their component parts. It is hoped that this process will enable the detection of the Higgs Boson.
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Immanuel Kant, German philosopher
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German philosopher. Kant published various influential philosophical works on the natural sciences, particularly geophysics and astronomy. In 1755, during work on Newtonian cosmology, Kant introduced the nebular theory of solar system origins. He predicted the existence of the planet Uranus before its discovery by Herschel. Another influential theory was his belief in two fundamental forces: gravitational (attractive) and elastic (repulsive). The latter needed a medium through which to act whilst the former did not. Kant also rejected the theory that matter was indivisible. This wood engraving dates from circa 1888.
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Albert Einstein, physicist
Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German-Swiss-US physicist. Born in Ulm, Germany, Einstein studied at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute until the age of 21, then worked at the Swiss patent office. In 1905, while still at the patent office, he published a paper on the special theory of relativity, which resulted in the famous equation E=mc2, which states that mass (m) and energy (E) are related by the square of the speed of light (c). However, it was for work on the photoelectric effect that he received the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics. Einstein moved to the USA in 1933 where he encouraged the first atomic bomb project. Later in life he became a prominent campaigner for nuclear disarmament.
© BILL SANDERSON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY