Budding yeast cell
Budding yeast cell. Computer artwork of asection through a yeast ( Candida albicans )cell that is reproducing asexually. A daughtercell (top left) is budding from the parent cell. Amitochondrion (red) and other cellular componentsare moving into the daughter cell alongcytoskeletal filaments (yellow). Mitochondriaproduce the cell's energy, while the cytoskeletongives it its shape. The nucleus (purple) containsthe cell's genetic information. Inside the nucleusis the nucleolus (round), which synthesisesribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA). The outersurface of the cell wall is covered with fimbriae, which attach the cell to other cells and aidmovement. C. albicans causes the diseasethrush
© Russell Kightley/Science Photo Library
THE SEVENTIES were a time of strikes and, in December 1974
THE SEVENTIES were a time of strikes and, in December 1974, the big national bakers decided to follow suit, demanding a 66% pay rise.
Staff of larger firms had empty shelves and had to turn away dozens of customers. Small bakeries were working full-out but were unable to meet the demand as shops phoned in for extra supplies. Yeast sales went up as housewives decided to bake their own bread.
(Picture) Happy customer shows off her two loafs of bread.
3rd December 1974
Biofuel production and use, diagram
Biofuel production and use, diagram. At far left the first stage is the source material (biomass, plant or other organic material). This is added to a separation tank (centre left). The cycle moving clockwise proceeds to the addition of enzymes (black barrels) in a hydrolysis tank, then yeast (yellow) added to a fermentation tank. At upper right, the distillation stage produces the biofuel to use in motor vehicles. At lower right, another separation tank converts the remaining biomass to pellets used for heating. At lower left, a converter extracts biogas from the residues of both the source and biofuel cycles. This gas can be used for heating
© CLAUS LUNAU/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY