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1683 Collection

In the year 1683, a fascinating blend of art, history, and innovation unfolded. Jan Davidsz

Background image1683 Collection: Still Life with Flowers in a Glass Vase, Jan Davidsz. de Heem, 1650 - 1683

Still Life with Flowers in a Glass Vase, Jan Davidsz. de Heem, 1650 - 1683

Background image1683 Collection: Frost Fair on the Thames by Pauline Baynes

Frost Fair on the Thames by Pauline Baynes
Illustration painted for Holly Leaves by Pauline Baynes showing Londoners in 1683-4 enjoying the delights of the Frost Fair on the frozen River Thames

Background image1683 Collection: George Ii / Players / 38 / 50

George Ii / Players / 38 / 50
GEORGE II, KING OF ENGLAND Reigned 1727 - 1760

Background image1683 Collection: The first engraved plan of the city of Philadelphia by Thomas Holme, 1683

The first engraved plan of the city of Philadelphia by Thomas Holme, 1683
PHILADELPHIA: MAP, 1683. The first engraved plan of the city of Philadelphia by Thomas Holme, 1683

Background image1683 Collection: John Owen, Churchmn

John Owen, Churchmn
JOHN OWEN nonconformist churchman who was nevertheless much respected with his autograph

Background image1683 Collection: Map of Peru 1683 Mallet

Map of Peru 1683 Mallet
Perou. A map showing a coastal part of South America on the South Pacific. Both the equator and tropic of Capricorn are given

Background image1683 Collection: Valentine Greatrakes

Valentine Greatrakes
Irish healer who, after a dream in 1662, discovered that he could heal many ailments simply by passing his hands and stroking the patient

Background image1683 Collection: Ottoman Empire defeated in Vienna, 1683

Ottoman Empire defeated in Vienna, 1683
King John III Sobieski leads Polish forces repulsing the Ottoman Turks from Vienna, 1683. Hand-colored woodcut of a 19th-century illustration

Background image1683 Collection: Frost Fair by Jan Griffier the Elder

Frost Fair by Jan Griffier the Elder
The famous Frost Fair taking place on the frozen River Thames in London in 1683. Freezing to around eleven inches thick, the ice was strong enough to hold shops, stalls, coaches and sleds

Background image1683 Collection: Perpetual Motion Machine

Perpetual Motion Machine
The supposed perpetual motion machine of Solomon Reisel

Background image1683 Collection: King George II

King George II
GEORGE II, KING OF ENGLAND Reigned from 1727 to 1760

Background image1683 Collection: Frost Fair / Thames / 1683

Frost Fair / Thames / 1683
Frost fair on the Thames, London. People enjoying the many activities and stalls

Background image1683 Collection: Potosi, Bolivia / Mallet

Potosi, Bolivia / Mallet
Looking down towards the mountain surmounted by a cross. At the foot is a road & settlement with houses, huts & churches & men in European dress

Background image1683 Collection: 1683, Mortier Map of North America, the West Indies, and the Atlantic Ocean, topography

1683, Mortier Map of North America, the West Indies, and the Atlantic Ocean, topography
1683, Mortier Map of North America, the West Indies, and the Atlantic Ocean

Background image1683 Collection: Shaftesbury / 1st Earl / Min

Shaftesbury / 1st Earl / Min
ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER 1st EARL of SHAFTESBURY English politician

Background image1683 Collection: Charles Duke of Grafton

Charles Duke of Grafton
CHARLES FITZROY, second duke of GRAFTON grandsonn of Charles II and Barbara Villiers : statesman who held a succession of offices

Background image1683 Collection: Robert Earl Yarmouth

Robert Earl Yarmouth
ROBERT PASTON, first earl of YARMOUTH royalist statesman who served and entertained Charles II with his autograph

Background image1683 Collection: Ottoman Wars / Vienna

Ottoman Wars / Vienna
John III Sobieski, king of Poland, attacks the Turkish army under Kara Mustapha Pashs besieging Vienna, and though outnumbered 2 to 1 routs it and saves the city

Background image1683 Collection: John Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna, 1683, from Hutchinson's History of the Nations, pub.1915

John Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna, 1683, from Hutchinson's History of the Nations, pub.1915
3533985 John Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna, 1683, from Hutchinson's History of the Nations, pub.1915; (add.info.: John Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna, 1683)

Background image1683 Collection: 1683 Mortier Map Of North America The West Indies

1683 Mortier Map Of North America The West Indies
1683, Mortier Map of North America, the West Indies, and the Atlantic Ocean

Background image1683 Collection: Distillation of Nitric Acid. Also known as Aqua Fortis or Parting Acid

Distillation of Nitric Acid. Also known as Aqua Fortis or Parting Acid, nitric acid was widely used in the refining
540742 Distillation of Nitric Acid. Also known as Aqua Fortis or Parting Acid, nitric acid was widely used in the refining and assaying of metals

Background image1683 Collection: Recovery of gold from amalgum

Recovery of gold from amalgum
863649 Recovery of gold from amalgum; (add.info.: Recovery of gold from amalgum. 7) chamois leather bag for separating amalgum from excess mercury

Background image1683 Collection: A pasha in the Ottoman Empire (engraving)

A pasha in the Ottoman Empire (engraving)
5314779 A pasha in the Ottoman Empire (engraving); (add.info.: Ottoman Empire. A Pasha or pascha. formerly bashaw. a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system. typically granted to governors)

Background image1683 Collection: Production of Salpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03). Nitre beds

Production of Salpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03). Nitre beds, heaps of manure mixed with chalky earth
540747 Production of Salpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03). Nitre beds, heaps of manure mixed with chalky earth. These were watered with urine and manure water

Background image1683 Collection: Assayer testing samples of gold or silver using a balance, 1574 (engraving)

Assayer testing samples of gold or silver using a balance, 1574 (engraving)
539689 Assayer testing samples of gold or silver using a balance, 1574 (engraving); (add.info.: From 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker Allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt und Berckwercksarten)

Background image1683 Collection: Blast furnaces, 1580 (engraving)

Blast furnaces, 1580 (engraving)
534630 Blast furnaces, 1580 (engraving); (add.info.: Blast furnaces. From 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertszt of 1580. Copperplate engraving)

Background image1683 Collection: Purification of silver in muffle furnace

Purification of silver in muffle furnace
863683 Purification of silver in muffle furnace; (add.info.: Purification of silver in a muffle furnace. From 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker "Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen)

Background image1683 Collection: Assay laboratory with various forms of furnace

Assay laboratory with various forms of furnace
863682 Assay laboratory with various forms of furnace; (add.info.: Assay laboratory with various forms of furnace including and athanor or Slow Harry, 7, self-stoking furnace for cementation, 9)

Background image1683 Collection: Various muffles used in assay ovens

Various muffles used in assay ovens
863648 Various muffles used in assay ovens; (add.info.: Assaying: Various muffles used in assay ovens for assaying gold and silver 1, 2, 3: 4, 5, 6, stopples, bottom plates and covers: 7)

Background image1683 Collection: Preparation of copper and silver to be alloyed for production of coins, 16th century (engraving)

Preparation of copper and silver to be alloyed for production of coins, 16th century (engraving)
539915 Preparation of copper and silver to be alloyed for production of coins, 16th century (engraving); (add.info.: Preparation of copper and silver to be alloyed for production of coins)

Background image1683 Collection: Refining copper by Hungarian process, 1580 (engraving)

Refining copper by Hungarian process, 1580 (engraving)
534632 Refining copper by Hungarian process, 1580 (engraving); (add.info.: Refining copper by Hungarian process. Cupellation cakes roasted, releasing heat. At 5: lead obtained being smelted)

Background image1683 Collection: Smelting of copper: making liquation cakes by reducing copper in furnaces and alloying with lead

Smelting of copper: making liquation cakes by reducing copper in furnaces and alloying with lead
531538 Smelting of copper: making liquation cakes by reducing copper in furnaces and alloying with lead. 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt und

Background image1683 Collection: Roasting gold ore

Roasting gold ore
863652 Roasting gold ore; (add.info.: Roasting gold ore in order to recover the precious metal. From 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker "Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt)

Background image1683 Collection: Assaying copper and lead

Assaying copper and lead
863650 Assaying copper and lead; (add.info.: Assaying copper and lead: prepared and weighed ore (1) and assay oven (2). From 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker "Beschreibung allerfurnemisten

Background image1683 Collection: Crystallization of Saltpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03, 1574 (engraving)

Crystallization of Saltpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03, 1574 (engraving)
540753 Crystallization of Saltpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03, 1574 (engraving); (add.info.: Crystallization of Saltpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03)

Background image1683 Collection: Laboratory for refining gold and silver, showing typical laboratory equipment

Laboratory for refining gold and silver, showing typical laboratory equipment
540745 Laboratory for refining gold and silver, showing typical laboratory equipment. 1, Athanor or Slow Harry, a self-feeding furnace maintaining a constant temperature. 2, 2

Background image1683 Collection: Washing ore to extract gold, 16th century (engraving)

Washing ore to extract gold, 16th century (engraving)
540732 Washing ore to extract gold, 16th century (engraving); (add.info.: Water is fed into a sieve containing crushed ore)

Background image1683 Collection: Title page of John Wilkins A Discourse Concerning a New World & Another Planet London 1683

Title page of John Wilkins A Discourse Concerning a New World & Another Planet London 1683 (Ist edition 1640)
541730 Title page of John Wilkins A Discourse Concerning a New World & Another Planet London 1683 (Ist edition 1640) Copernicus

Background image1683 Collection: A pascha from the Ottoman Empire (print)

A pascha from the Ottoman Empire (print)
5314780 A pascha from the Ottoman Empire (print); (add.info.: Ottoman Empire. A Pasha or pascha. formerly bashaw. a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system. typically granted to governors)

Background image1683 Collection: Siege of Vienna 1683, Ottoman Army Camel

Siege of Vienna 1683, Ottoman Army Camel
3056369 Siege of Vienna 1683, Ottoman Army Camel; Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna, Austria; (add.info.: Ottoman caravan pack camel it would have appeared at the 1683 siege of Vienna)

Background image1683 Collection: Siege of Vienna 1683, Ottoman Army

Siege of Vienna 1683, Ottoman Army
3056368 Siege of Vienna 1683, Ottoman Army; Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna, Austria; (add.info.: Muslim Georgian Ottoman ally as he would have appeared at the 1683 siege of Vienna)

Background image1683 Collection: Assay laboratory for gold and silver, 1574 (engraving)

Assay laboratory for gold and silver, 1574 (engraving)
863685 Assay laboratory for gold and silver, 1574 (engraving); (add.info.: Assay laboratory for gold and silver. 1) Furnace: 2) Sheet of iron onto which assays are poured: 3) Parting flask

Background image1683 Collection: Refining gold

Refining gold
863684 Refining gold; (add.info.: Refining gold: furnaces, 2, 2, and operator, 9. The man near 4 is gradually heating a crucible surrounded by a ring of burning coals)

Background image1683 Collection: Assaying of silver

Assaying of silver
863654 Assaying of silver; (add.info.: Assaying of silver: 1&3, moulds for making cupels: 2&4, the cupels: 8, man moulding cupels)

Background image1683 Collection: Assaying copper

Assaying copper
863653 Assaying copper; (add.info.: Assaying copper: Furnaces (1, 4), ore (3), bellows (5), and aeolipile (6) to supply draught to furnaces. Pot in which flux is prepared (8)

Background image1683 Collection: Smelting copper

Smelting copper
863647 Smelting copper; (add.info.: Smelting copper. From a 1683 English edition of Lazarus Ercker "Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt- und Berckwercksarten" originally)

Background image1683 Collection: Checking the quality of Saltpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03)

Checking the quality of Saltpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03). Saltpetre is the principal ingredient in
540750 Checking the quality of Saltpetre (Nitre, Potassium Nitrate, or KN03). Saltpetre is the principal ingredient in gunpowder, and is still used in the preservation of some foods

Background image1683 Collection: Refining of silver

Refining of silver
863651 Refining of silver; (add.info.: Refining of silver, showing (2) a test put into the furnace and (3) burning the silver in a test



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In the year 1683, a fascinating blend of art, history, and innovation unfolded. Jan Davidsz. De Heem's masterpiece "Still Life with Flowers in a Glass Vase" showcased the beauty of nature frozen in time, capturing the essence of life itself. Meanwhile, Pauline Baynes depicted an extraordinary event - the Frost Fair on the Thames - where Londoners turned their frozen river into a bustling marketplace. Amidst these artistic wonders, Thomas Holme unveiled his engraved plan of Philadelphia, offering a glimpse into the birth of one of America's most iconic cities. John Owen emerged as an influential churchman during this era, shaping religious discourse and beliefs. On another note entirely, George II took center stage alongside talented players in what must have been an enthralling performance - perhaps showcasing Shakespearean classics or captivating new works. The Map of Peru by Mallet provided explorers with valuable insights into uncharted territories while Valentine Greatrakes delved into healing practices that captivated many. However, it was not just art and culture that defined 1683; significant historical events also unfolded. The Ottoman Empire suffered defeat at Vienna's hands – marking a turning point in European history and shifting power dynamics across continents. Even amidst all this excitement and progress came Jan Griffier the Elder's depiction of yet another Frost Fair on the Thames – reminding us how nature can both inspire awe-inspiring creations and disrupt daily life simultaneously. And let us not forget about innovation. In 1683, inventors sought to unlock perpetual motion through their machines – pushing boundaries and challenging scientific understanding. Ultimately though it was King George II who reigned over this vibrant year filled with creativity and discovery – leaving his mark on history as he navigated political landscapes both within Britain and beyond its shores. Thus we find ourselves transported back to 1683.