Optical computing. Coloured light micrograph of a section through a hybrid electronic-optical circuit board. Optical waveguides (red) are used to transmit data in the form of light pulses. This allows data transfer at faster speeds than is possible through the electronic connections of an ordinary printed circuit board (PCB). Such an increase in data transfer speeds is required to take full advantage of the processing power of the fastest microchips, the calculating components at the heart of a computer. The optical waveguides are 0.001-millimetre-wide plastic strips. This technology has been developed by Siemens and the University of Paderborn, Germany
© VOLKER STEGER/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Cartoon, The Macmillion (Andrew Carnegie)
Cartoon, The Macmillion -- Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919), Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist, who led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and was one of the world's richest people ever. This cartoon relates to Carnegie's donation of 2, 000, 000 for the establishment of free education at four of the Scottish Universities (Edinburgh, St. Andrew's, Aberdeen and Glasgow).
© Mary Evans Picture Library
Ypres Battlefield Markers and signs
Over the 40 years that we have been writing about these battlefields, there has been many attempts to signpost the places of interest. The earliest were the markers erected by the Ypres League shortly after the war ended, but these, like so many since, were not maintained and have disappeared. Ypres policy since 2015 has been that The Land is the Last Witness. In pursuit of this policy the opposing front lines have been marked by the planting of trees and three clear Touring Routes with explanatory boards set out. Nevertheless, there are still independant signs, of which these are examples. Date: 2016
© Holts Battlefield Collection / Mary Evans